Psychological stressors like deadlines, exams, marital conflict, and job crises may prevent us from falling asleep or wake us from sleep throughout the night. It takes time to "turn off" all the noise from the day. No way around it. If you work right up to the time you turn out the lights, or are reviewing all the day's events and planning tomorrow (sound familiar?), you simply cannot just "flip a switch" and drop off to a blissful night's sleep.
Before recommending any action, your health care provider will explore with you a variety of possible causes for your sleep problems, including pain or depression. If necessary, he or she may recommend a sleep test (also known as a polysomnographic evaluation or sleep lab). Based on your symptoms, medical history and specific needs, your health care provider will be able to make a personalized treatment plan to help you achieve restful sleep.
Sedative-hypnotic medications (benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepines) can cause severe allergic reaction, facial swelling, memory lapses, hallucinations, suicidal thoughts or actions, and complex sleep-related behaviors like sleep-walking, sleep-driving (driving while not fully awake, with no memory of the event) and sleep-eating (eating in the middle of the night with no recollection, often resulting in weight-gain). If you experience any unusual sleep-related behavior, consult your doctor immediately.
Rather than counting sheep, visualize an environment that makes you feel calm and happy. The key to success is thinking of a scene that’s engaging enough to distract you from your thoughts and worries for a while. In an Oxford University study published in the journal Behavior Research and Therapy, insomniacs who were instructed to imagine a relaxing scene, such as a beach or a waterfall, fell asleep 20 minutes faster than insomniacs who were told to count sheep or do nothing special at all.
Eat Foods That Help You Sleep: Tryptophan is a naturally-occurring amino acid that is a precursor to serotonin, which is then converted to melatonin. Eat carbohydrate snacks such as whole grain crackers before bedtime. Also include foods rich in vitamin B6, found in wheat germ, sunflower seeds, and bananas, which enhances the body's conversion of tryptophan. Note that L-tryptophan supplements are not recommended as they have been linked to eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome.
SOUND: We focus on sound a lot. Quiet environments are going to improve your sleep quality. Your brain has these micro arousals throughout the night without you being consciously aware of it—even an air-conditioning unit turning on wakes up your brain. So blocking out noises is a low-hanging fruit to improve your sleep quality. Bose just released an earbud that you can sleep with, for example.
Having a few drinks before bedtime will increase your NREM sleep (Stages 1 and 2) and reduce your REM sleep. You’ll remember that REM sleep helps you organize and store your memories. Too little REM sleep can be devastating for the brain and body. In addition, REM sleep is the sleep stage where the most calories are burned. And alcohol is filled with empty calories, so drinking is never a good idea when you’re trying to sleep better or lose weight. See more info on REM sleep here.
Sleep also is important for good health. Studies show that not getting enough sleep or getting poor quality sleep on a regular basis increases the risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, and other medical conditions. In addition, during sleep, your body produces valuable hormones. These hormones help children grow and help adults and children build muscle mass, fight infections, and repair cells. Hormones released during sleep also affect how the body uses energy. Studies find that the less people sleep, the more likely they are to be overweight or obese, develop diabetes, and prefer eating foods high in calories and carbohydrates.*
Use a blue light filter on your device. The blue light emitted by smartphones and tablets can be a powerful sleep disruptor. It suppresses your body’s production of melatonin and throws your circadian rhythm off, making it harder to fall and stay asleep. Luckily, many smartphones these days have a “night shift” feature that adjusts the screen from cool (blue) to warm (yellow) light, which is less likely to keep you up past your bedtime. Likewise, there are apps you can run on your laptop or tablet that reduce blue light. Some popular ones are f.lux and Twilight.