The NF-kB molecule is a transcription factor that controls the transcription of DNA for the perpetuation of the inflammatory immune response. It acts as a switch to turn inflammation on and off in the body. NF-kB has the ability to detect noxious stimuli, such as infectious agents, free radicals, and other cellular injuries, and then directs DNA to produce inflammatory cytokines. The NF-kB proteins are localized in the cytoplasm of the cell and are associated with a family of inhibitory proteins known as inhibitor of kB (IkB).[43,119] The TNF-α, and especially IL-1b, can also directly stimulate enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases, which break down extracellular collagen matrix, a hallmark of inflammatory joint disease.[32,76,77] The IkB proteins are normally bound to NF-kB and block their nuclear localization signal. A variety of provoking stimuli can degrade the IkB and result in the nuclear translocation of NF-kB to be free to activate DNA synthesis of inflammatory cytokines [Figure 2].
The arnica Montana plant—also known as the mountain daisy—has been used for centuries to provide natural pain relief. For people who prefer a homeopathic approach to pain, the Boiron Arnica Cream is a great addition to your medicine cabinet. The non-sticky cream can help relieve muscle pain, stiffness, swelling, and bruise discoloration. It’s also a good option for sensitive skin thanks to the natural ingredients. It can even be applied to the face and is safe to use on children.
One of the products I like mixes bromelain, curcumin, and quercetin. This powerful trio provides enhanced support for maintaining a healthy inflammatory response to reduce pain. Another favorite is a blend that contains essential nutrients the body needs to repair and recover, along with potent herbal pain alleviators, including black cohosh, white willow bark, valerian, and devil’s claw. Lastly, I suggest a high-potency proteolytic enzyme product combined with rutin. This supports the body’s natural processes for tissue and joint recovery. The enzymes work synergistically with rutin to naturally boost muscle and tissue repair.
NSAIDs have anti-inflammatory (reduce inflammation), analgesic (relieve pain) and antipyretic (lower temperature) effects. Although different NSAIDs have different structures, they all work by blocking cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Both types produce prostaglandins; however, the main function of COX-1 enzymes is to produce baseline levels of prostaglandins that activate platelets and protect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas COX-2 enzymes are responsible for releasing prostaglandins after infection or injury. Prostaglandins have a number of different effects, one of which is to regulate inflammation. Most NSAIDs inhibit both enzymes, although a few are available that mainly inhibit COX-2. The pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs are mainly due to inhibition of COX-2, and their unwanted side effects are largely due to inhibition of COX-1.
Celebrex, Vioxx, and Bextra quickly became the mainstay for the treatment of chronic pain conditions related to inflammation. Within a few years, an estimated 15–20 million people in the US were using selective COX-2–inhibiting NSAIDs on a long-term basis. These drugs became the most commonly used pharmaceutical agent with more than 70 million NSAID prescriptions written each year and 30 billion over-the-counter NSAID tablets sold annually. It was estimated that 5–10% of the adult population used NSAIDs, and among the elderly (a group at higher risk of nonselective NSAID-induced gastrointestinal complications), the use of these drugs was as high as 15%. The general acceptance of these drugs was due to the perceived lack of serious gastrointestinal side effects that had been associated with the nonselective class of NSAIDs.[26,119]
Sudden and intense cold exposure makes you release cold-shock proteins, a special class of proteins that decrease inflammation and speed up recovery. To get the benefits of cold therapy, you can take an ice bath or use a cryotherapy chamber, like the one at Bulletproof Labs. Cryotherapy’s benefits go far beyond inflammation, too. Get a full breakdown of how cryotherapy upgrades your biology.