Rutin is a flavonoid composed of the flavonol quercetin and the disaccharide rutinose. Rutin is found naturally in a variety of plants, and dietary sources include black tea and apple peels. Rutin’s natural anti-inflammatory potential is attributed mainly to its powerful antioxidant activity. Rutin also helps maintain the levels of reduced glutathione, which is a powerful biological antioxidant. The combination of these activities helps to minimize the cellular damage and resulting inflammation caused by the various oxidative processes.
What makes a joint “amenable”? Is it mellow and easy-going? No, just accessible: a pain-killing gel is useful only for joints that aren’t covered by a thick layer of muscle (like the shoulder). The medication gets diluted as it penetrates deeper into tissue, and a meaningful amount can only get into joints if the joint is just under the surface of the skin.

In summer 2018 I had my first personal experience with dramatic relief from Voltaren Gel (topical diclofenac). It’s not the first time I have found it useful, but it was the first time it was amazing. I’d been having some unexplained knee pain intermittently for several weeks when it kicked up a notch or two and became constant and even started waking me up at night. When I finally remembered to try Voltaren Gel — I’m not sure what took me so long — things were bad enough that it was going to be obvious if it worked. And it was! After many days of constant discomfort ranging from 3-6 on a 10-scale, it just ended: half an hour after applying the stuff, I simply didn’t have that problem anymore. Hallelujah! It’s been weeks since then with no relapse. Although the pain was not terrible, this is actually one of the clearest examples of pain relief from any treatment that I’ve ever enjoyed.
Aloe barbadensis (organic aloe) leaf juice, Limnanthes alba (meadow foam) seed oil, mentha arvensis (menthol), capsicum (capsicum annuum) oleoresin, cinnamomum camphora (white camphor) essential oil, ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) essential oil, piper nigrum (black pepper) essential oil, anthemis nobilis (Roman chamomile) flower essential oil, chamomilla recutita (German chamomile) flower essential oil, cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) leaf essential oil, cymbopogon winterianus (citronella) essential oil, eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) leaf essential oil, helichrysum italicum (helichrysum) essential oil, zingiber officinale (ginger) root essential oil, citrus paradisi (pink grapefruit) essential oil, juniper communis (juniper) berry essential oil, cymbopogon flexuous (lemongrass) essential oil, mentha piperita (peppermint) essential oil, pinus sylvestris (pine) needle essential oil, ravensara aromatica (ravensara) essential oil, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) leaf essential oil, mentha spicata (spearmint) essential oil, origanum vulgare (wild oregano) essential oil, glycerin, hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel), water, alcohol, phenoxyethanol, carbomertriethanolamine (TEA), and tetrasodium (EDTA)
After an injury, first rest, ice the area, use compression, and elevate the area. The acronym to help you remember is RICE. Rest the area. Ice the area 4 times a day for 10 to 15 minutes. If it looks better, compress the area with an Ace-type elastic bandage. To reduce swelling, ice helps, and so does elevating the area above your heart. When the swelling is down but you still have mild pain, apply a topical cream or gel according to the package directions. If it has worsened, consult your doctor.
Even though you might need something for your pain or a product that would help minimize inflammations of any kind, the cream that you buy should come with greater convenience. The creams that have a no greasy feeling quality when used would be the ultimate choice you could ever make if you desire a medication that would be more comfortable and effective at the same time. The creams with no greasy feeling would mean that you would never stain your clothes with the ointment and most of all; you would be able to tackle the minor injuries you may be subjected to at different times in your life. If you are not sure of what to buy, make sure that you consult with your friends or family members who may have used some of these products at different times in their lives. If not, ensure that you talk to your doctor on the same issue since the physicians are more than capable of providing individuals with the best advice regarding the anti-inflammatory creams that would work better with no side effects whatsoever. With everything considered, what is important is acquiring a cream that is viable, reasonably priced, safe to use, and able to provide you with fast pain relief.
Dr. Oz is a TV personality who believes he has a cure for homosexuality and who doesn't apply scientific rigor to his claims. The alternative pain remedies here are worth hearing about, but I want to warn your readership about citing Dr. Oz as as an authority. Trump is also a TV personality. And there are many others who must be examined for a motivated track record.
Studies have shown that pycnogenol is 50–100 times more potent than vitamin E in neutralizing free radicals and that it helps to recycle and prolong the activity of vitamins C and E. Studies have shown pycnogenol to be effective in reducing blood pressure and reducing the risk of venous thrombosis by its effect on vascular endothelium. The usual dosage is 100–200 mg daily. Few side effects from the use of pine bark extracts have been reported, the most frequent being mild gastrointestinal effects such as diarrhea and upset stomach. Pycnogenol should not be taken by patients who are being treated with immunosuppressants or by those receiving corticosteroid drugs because it can enhance immune system function and interact with drugs that suppress the immune system.[46–84]
It is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers (such as weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers) are not child-resistant and young children can open them easily. To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out of their sight and reach. http://www.upandaway.org

“I had sciatic pain so bad that I went to a doctor for a 'series of three shots' (or so he said) for the pain, yet ten shots later the pain was still there. When a friend of mine gave me a tube of Relief pain cream that had a little left in it so I could give it a try I was so amazed at how effective it was in relieving my pain that I immediately called and ordered two tubes, and I will be asking my doctor to stock it—because I absolutely love this stuff!" *


PharmacyTimes.com [Internet]. Fudin J. Should Topical NSAIDs Have Strict Heart Risk Warnings?; 2018 March 10 [cited 18 Jun 12]. Although this article’s title implies concerns about topical NSAID safety, it ends up answering that concern with very reassuring data, and it turns into a piece suggesting that the FDA needs to make it clearer that only oral NSAIDs are of concern, while topical is an extremely safe alternative! “ … all topical vehicles of diclofenac delivery result in only a small fraction of the diclofenac that actually reaches the systemic circulation compared with the oral route.” BACK TO TEXT
"I am a true believer in Biofreeze ($15; performancehealth.com). My football coach introduced me to it years ago. It's a topical cooling pain reliever that works very similarly to ice but since it's a gel, I can apply it before teaching classes and training clients to keep function in my muscles and joints. In addition to relieving muscle pain or soreness, it can be used to help arthritis and other muscular and joint discomforts too. " —Mat Forzaglia, The Fhitting Room instructor
The best way to take natural remedies for inflammation and pain is by following the guidelines on the label. These guidelines are often the minimal doses and therefore for acute conditions the doses can be increased, sometimes doubled or tripled. However, in high doses even natural substances can become toxic in the body. In all cases, it is necessary to use caution and to take supplements and medications as directed on the bottle or as suggested by a professional healthcare provider.
Hi Carol, Sorry to hear you are in such pain. Hopefully the results of the x-ray will show a way forward to solve the problem. You may benefit from physiotherapy to prevent frozen shoulder, or gentle chiropractic manipulation to correct misalignments of tiny joints – this certainly helped my other half who experienced a similar problem. A topical treatment containing capsaicin may help by damping down nerve generated pain. Magnetic therapy and using a heatlamp are other non-drug approaches which have been shown to improve circulation and boost healing of shoulder problems. Anti-inflammatories such as omega-3, turmeric or rosehip are other options. I hope you feel more comfortable soon. Best wishes, Sarah B
Jessica Hegg is the content manager and at ViveHealth.com. With vast product knowledge and understanding of individual needs, she aims to share valuable information on making smart buying choices, overcoming obstacles and overall improving the quality of life for others. Avid gym-rat and nutrition enthusiast, she’s interested in all things related to staying active and living healthy lifestyle.
The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) medication is still the mainstay of most classically taught clinicians for joint and spine related inflammatory pain, despite their commonly known side effects [Table 1]. NSAID mechanisms are primarily through interaction with proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1a, IL-1b, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Increased concentrations of TNF-α are believed to cause the cardinal signs of inflammation to occur.[44]
Celebrex, Vioxx, and Bextra quickly became the mainstay for the treatment of chronic pain conditions related to inflammation.[71] Within a few years, an estimated 15–20 million people in the US were using selective COX-2–inhibiting NSAIDs on a long-term basis. These drugs became the most commonly used pharmaceutical agent with more than 70 million NSAID prescriptions written each year and 30 billion over-the-counter NSAID tablets sold annually. It was estimated that 5–10% of the adult population used NSAIDs, and among the elderly (a group at higher risk of nonselective NSAID-induced gastrointestinal complications), the use of these drugs was as high as 15%. The general acceptance of these drugs was due to the perceived lack of serious gastrointestinal side effects that had been associated with the nonselective class of NSAIDs.[26,119]
The use of both over-the-counter and prescription nonsteroidal medications is frequently recommended in a typical neurosurgical practice. But persistent long-term use safety concerns must be considered when prescribing these medications for chronic and degenerative pain conditions. This article is a literature review of the biochemical pathways of inflammatory pain, the potentially serious side effects of nonsteroidal drugs and commonly used and clinically studied natural alternative anti-inflammatory supplements. Although nonsteroidal medications can be effective, herbs and dietary supplements may offer a safer, and often an effective, alternative treatment for pain relief, especially for long-term use.

The use of fish oil (in the form of cod liver oil), an omega-3 EFA, for the treatment of muscular, skeletal, and discogenic diseases, can be traced back to the late 18th century as detailed by Curtis et al.,[24,25] Unfortunately, because of the rapid onset of rancidity of this polyunsaturated oil when exposed to air, and hence its disconcerting odor, cod liver oil fell out of favor. With improved extraction techniques, such as using a protective nitrogen blanket and enhanced oxygen-free encapsulation methods, there is less chance of oxidation during the manufacturing process. The therapeutic benefits of fish oil can now be realized without the regurgitation and odor of previous products caused by peroxides and rancid tasting fish oil.[14]


How it works: When back muscles hurt, the pain is usually caused by inflamed tissue. Cold reduces the swelling and discomfort, says Jason Highsmith, a neurosurgeon in Charleston, South Carolina. As soon as you feel pain, apply cold several times a day, 10 minutes at a time, for about three days. A bag of frozen peas works, or try a cold pack, like an Ace Reusable Cold Compress ($10 at drugstores).


I am allergic to anti-inflammatory pills since they affect my stomach. I don't like the bad side effects they give either. So I look to topical anti-inflammatory cream to help when I have back, hip and/or shoulders sprains and strains. I have tried endless products: Penetrex, Aspercreme, Australian dream, Celadrin and so on. Out of these, Muscle Care works best for pain management. However, I do have some skin reactions to it so I have to give it a rest. When that happens, I use Topricin which works quite well. However, to me, SynthaFlex works as well, if not better. On top of that, it gives a strong cool menthol effect which Topricin doesn't. So when I overwork some muscles, I like to use SynthaFlex and/or Topricin. When my skin reactions calm down, I go back to using Muscle Care from time to time. I also use a roller to stretch which also helps. I hope this review gives others a better sense of what might work for them.

Over the past two decades, evidence has emerged to demonstrate that topical versions of NSAIDs are well absorbed through the skin and reach therapeutic levels in synovial fluid, muscle, and fascia. … For chronic conditions like osteoarthritis, the data are of fair quality and are persuasive. On balance, there’s good evidence to show that topical NSAIDs are clinically- and cost-effective for short term (< 4 weeks) use, especially when pain is localized.

Vitamins are essential to health. Every natural thing that you eat contains the vitamins needed for growth, repair, bone density, pH balance and hormone regulation. The problem is that many people don’t have access to organic whole foods, so vitamin supplementation is important. When suffering from inflammation, pain and arthritis, the following vitamins may help.


Omega 3 fatty acid supplements are one of the most powerful ways to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation which are the underlying markers we see on labs with individuals who are suffering with chronic pain.   Omega 3’s help provide better cell membrane receptor activity and suppress genetic transcription factors associated with inflammation and pain.

7) The indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase pathway controls complement-dependent enhancement of chemo-radiation therapy against murine glioblastoma. Li M, Bolduc AR, Hoda MN, Gamble DN, Dolisca SB, Bolduc AK, Hoang K, Ashley C, McCall D, Rojiani AM, Maria BL, Rixe O, MacDonald TJ, Heeger PS, Mellor AL, Munn DH, Johnson TS. J Immunother Cancer. 2014 Jul 7; PMID: 25054064
Burdock root is a natural botanical for that is in wide use for many conditions, among them arthritic pain, swollen joints and rheumatism. More than anything else, clinical studies have found it most effective as a blood purifier that helps to rid the body of deleterious toxins and clear congestion from the circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory and urinary systems. Burdock is said to cleanse and eliminate long-term impurities from the blood very rapidly through its action on both the liver and kidneys. For those who suffer from arthritis and have taken too much Tylenol, burdock root has been clinical proven to protect the liver cells from the damage of taking acetaminophen. It is believed to stimulate the gallbladder and encourage liver cells to regenerate.
Apply to the affected area and massage into the skin gently. Always wash your hands after you have finished rubbing the cream, gel or spray into the skin. This is to make sure that you avoid rubbing this medicine into sensitive areas of the body such as the eyes. Do not apply to skin that is broken, or near the eyes, nose, mouth, genital or bottom (anal) areas. Do not use plasters or bandages (dressings) on top of these medicines. Generally these medicines are applied to the skin 2-4 times a day. However, for specific advice for your medicine, see the leaflet that comes inside the packet.

When you suffer from recurring back pain, the last thing you want to do is become dependent on medication. Dr. Pat’s Ultra Freeze gel is a simple, non-intrusive solution to muscle aches and soreness that gets to work straight away, helping you get on with your daily life without pain. Designed to combat discomfort associated with arthritis and sciatica as well as muscle pain, the cooling gel comes in a larger than average container, meaning you can depend on it being there when you need it.


Warning: The gel is for external use only. It is flammable therefore keep it away from heat or open flames. Check with your healthcare provider before using it if you have sensitive skin are pregnant or breastfeeding. Do not put it near your eyes or mucous membranes or apply to wounds, sores, scratched or imperfect skin. Do not use this product with other creams, sprays, liniments, or ointments. Never put a bandage over the area. Stop using if your skin becomes red, has a rash, or feels irritated. Never use with a heating pad on top of the area and always wash your hands after using. Contact your doctor if problems continue after use. Consult your pediatrician if your child is under 2-years-old. Keep out of the reach of children.
Physical activity. Exercise helps build strong, flexible muscles that will be less prone to injury. It can also help the healing process for an aching back, prevent problems in the future, and improve function. Work with your doctor to develop an exercise program, or seek a referral to another health professional who can. A good program typically includes the three major forms of exercise: aerobic activity, strength training, and flexibility exercises.
Today, the most common conventional treatments for lower back pain relief are medications, including NSAIDS like aspirin and Tylenol, along with more potent prescription painkillers, such analgesics. These drugs can potentially cause adverse side effects in some patients and commonly don’t solve the underlying causes of lower back pain (such as poor posture, obesity or exercise-related strains). Some medications for back pains have even been tied to complications, such as liver damage or intestinal bleeding, when taken for long periods of time or in high doses.
Even though it is important to strive for quality when shopping for different types of products on the market, it is equally important that you think about your budget before making any purchase. Make sure that what you buy like, in this case, the anti-inflammatory cream does not overstretch your existing budget. Once you find the brand that is within your price range, the next thing to ascertain to would be to ensure that the reasonably priced brand is effective and would not have adverse side effects on your health. Nevertheless, just keep in mind that there are counterfeits products available on the market. Therefore, it is vital to watch out for such products so that you do not become a victim of purchasing counterfeit goods so that you would have not only wasted your money but you may end up with a product that may have dire consequences to your health. The best way you could avoid being duped with the unscrupulous dealers is by consulting with your doctor who would advise you best on the anti-inflammatory cream that would adequately serve your needs regardless of the price at which it might be sold on the market.
The soothing sensation of a rollerball can add additional relief for some arthritis sufferers, and this version from Stopain is popular. The active ingredient is menthol, which provides a cooling effect. It also contains MSM and glucosamine as well as eucalyptus and peppermint oils in a non-greasy formula that won’t stain clothing. You can apply it up to four times a day, and customers say it works to alleviate pain quickly.
“I would rate Corganics Relief pain cream as EXCELLENT! I have a diagnosis of Stage 4 lung cancer with metastases to bones, spine, brain and liver. Every morning and night I use it on my lower back and pelvis, calves and shins. I rely on the relief I get from Relief pain cream to be comfortable all day. Thank you for giving me the peace of mind with such a quality product. I appreciate your excellence!” *
Rolfing not only relieves physical muscle pain rooted in your fascia, but also improves your emotional well-being and energy. Whether you’re an athlete looking to improve your game or someone suffering with TMJ pain, chronic back pain or spine pain, rolfing is something worth exploring. It’s a potent natural painkiller that impacts your neuromuscular system in a positive, pill-free way.

I’m often asked which is the strongest ibuprofen gel. If you’re looking for the best muscle pain relief, however, I recommend diclofenac gel rather than ibuprofen gel. Research shows that diclofenac gel (Voltarol) is stronger and more effective than even a strong ibuprofen gel. If you still prefer to use an ibuprofen gel, however, you can find them on Boots.com.


They are not also greasy and you can use apply it whenever you like. You can use it even when you are on a business meeting or you are on a party and no one will smell it due to its odorless feature. After using the pain relief products you feel relaxed within minutes and you feel healthy to work again. So don’t feel hesitate to have the best muscle pain relief cream nowadays and save a spot in your office or purse.
This product has a huge market universally. It is used by more than 2 million individuals because of how effective it is in relieving pain and minimizing inflammation. Penetrex has been amongst the most renowned pain relief drugs for quite some time over the years and it is still being used widely that is why acquiring one for yourself would serve your needs greatly.

Having a variety of solutions for pain relief is not only helpful, it’s strategic. Depending on which type of pain you’re experiencing, you want a personalized option. And having different solutions on hand helps you be prepared for whatever life throws at you. Try adding an external pain relief cream to the mix so you can relieve muscle and joint pain, then get back to doing what you love.


Five updates have been logged for this article since publication (2009). All PainScience.com updates are logged to show a long term commitment to quality, accuracy, and currency. more Like good footnotes, update logging sets PainScience.com apart from most other health websites and blogs. It’s fine print, but important fine print, in the same spirit of transparency as the editing history available for Wikipedia pages.
Most of these gels and creams won’t cure your ailment. You’ll probably run into countless negative reviews of products from people that complain that their pain is not gone. These types of products are not a cure. Pain relief creams and gels are a helpful way to reduce pain. With acute pain, these gels and creams help users get relief until treatment can occur. In the case of a sprained ankle or torn muscle, for instance, using this kind of medicine can be a good alternative to NSAIDs to help reduce pain. For chronic ailments like arthritis, these substances are merely a way to help sufferers cope with pain. They are a band-aid. Some aches and pains may be helped with further treatment but don’t expect miracles with these types of products. Just because they don’t completely remove pain doesn’t mean they aren’t helpful in some instances and for some people.
Soft tissue therapies help treat the underlying causes of back pain, such as poor posture, muscular compensations, and weakness through manipulative, hands-on adjustments. These natural therapies can help “turn on” muscles that have been “turned off” due to past injuries and therefore eliminate added stress on painful parts of the back or legs. I recommend finding a practitioner who offers one of the following:
The information you share, including that which might otherwise be Protected Health Information, to this site is by design open to the public and is not a private, secure service. You should think carefully before disclosing any personal information in any public forum. What you have written may be seen, disclosed to, or collected by third parties and may be used by others in ways we are unable to control or predict, including to contact you or otherwise be used for unauthorized or unlawful purposes. As with any public forum on any site, this information may also appear in third-party search engines like Google, MSN, Yahoo, etc. Your use of this site is governed by Harvard University and its affiliates Terms of Use located at www.health.harvard.edu/privacy-policy and may be amended from time to time.
“My husband and I prefer more natural, holistic pain relievers, and we were thrilled when we found Relief cream. We take it with us everywhere we go, use it religiously for joint pain, and recommend it to everyone we know. Relief is FAR superior to Biofreeze; there truly is NO comparison. Relief smells better, feels better, and just plain works better. Thank you so much for a natural alternative to pain medications that come with some really nasty 'side effects.'” *

Just as the name suggests, these are very effective forms of treatment that you can use to not only get rid of pain experienced on different parts of your body, but the creams would also help you reduce any forms of inflammation that may be experienced. As long as you follow all the instructions provided on how to use the drugs, you would be able to get the best out of these forms of medication.


The NF-kB molecule is a transcription factor that controls the transcription of DNA for the perpetuation of the inflammatory immune response. It acts as a switch to turn inflammation on and off in the body. NF-kB has the ability to detect noxious stimuli, such as infectious agents, free radicals, and other cellular injuries, and then directs DNA to produce inflammatory cytokines. The NF-kB proteins are localized in the cytoplasm of the cell and are associated with a family of inhibitory proteins known as inhibitor of kB (IkB).[43,119] The TNF-α, and especially IL-1b, can also directly stimulate enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases, which break down extracellular collagen matrix, a hallmark of inflammatory joint disease.[32,76,77] The IkB proteins are normally bound to NF-kB and block their nuclear localization signal. A variety of provoking stimuli can degrade the IkB and result in the nuclear translocation of NF-kB to be free to activate DNA synthesis of inflammatory cytokines [Figure 2].
The information you share, including that which might otherwise be Protected Health Information, to this site is by design open to the public and is not a private, secure service. You should think carefully before disclosing any personal information in any public forum. What you have written may be seen, disclosed to, or collected by third parties and may be used by others in ways we are unable to control or predict, including to contact you or otherwise be used for unauthorized or unlawful purposes. As with any public forum on any site, this information may also appear in third-party search engines like Google, MSN, Yahoo, etc. Your use of this site is governed by Harvard University and its affiliates Terms of Use located at www.health.harvard.edu/privacy-policy and may be amended from time to time.
Since the time of Hippocrates white willow bark has been in use as a natural means of reducing inflammation and pain, specifically associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as headache, backache, gout and PMS. The bark of the willow tree contains the chemical salicin, which has a similar effect in the body as acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). But it’s better than aspirin, because it has none of the gastrointestinal side effects, and it naturally contains flavonoids (anti-inflammatory compounds found in plants).

Massage. Various forms of body work can provide temporary pain relief. You can try full-body Swedish massage for  stress relief and relaxation; deep-tissue massage, which uses pressure and slow strokes on deeper muscle tissue to release knots and relieve tension; or myofascial release, which uses long, stretching strokes to relieve tension around the connective tissue of the muscles.
Hi Carol, Sorry to hear you are in such pain. Hopefully the results of the x-ray will show a way forward to solve the problem. You may benefit from physiotherapy to prevent frozen shoulder, or gentle chiropractic manipulation to correct misalignments of tiny joints – this certainly helped my other half who experienced a similar problem. A topical treatment containing capsaicin may help by damping down nerve generated pain. Magnetic therapy and using a heatlamp are other non-drug approaches which have been shown to improve circulation and boost healing of shoulder problems. Anti-inflammatories such as omega-3, turmeric or rosehip are other options. I hope you feel more comfortable soon. Best wishes, Sarah B
The Inactive ingredients are aloe barbadensis leaf extract, arnica Montana flower extract, Actium lappa root (burdock) extract, boswellia carterii resin extract, calendula officinalis extract, carbomer, camellia sinensis (green tea) leaf extract, camphor, glycerin, ilex paraguariensis leaf extract, isopropyl alcohol, isopropyl myristate, melissa officinalis (lemon balm) leaf extract, silica, tocopheryl (vitamin E) acetate, triethanolamine, water, blue 1, and yellow 5. Ilex is a skin protectant for topical skin barrier gels and lotions designed to protect the skin from harmful irritants such as urine and feces. It usually contains good things such as corn starch, white petroleum jelly, and zinc oxide.

Nearly everyone suffers from some type of back pain at some point in their lives. But no matter when it appears or what may have caused it, back pain can be a real, well … pain to deal with. The good news? There are several simple things you can do to ease pain and keep your back in good condition. The following tips can help you get on the way toward feeling better.
NSAIDs don’t just damage your gut lining. They affect your gut bacteria, too. A study of regular users found that different NSAIDs caused different changes in gut bacteria.[5] Ibuprofen and arthritis drug celecoxib (Celebrex), for example, increased pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, a family of bacteria that includes E. coli, Salmonella, and a number of lesser-known bacteria that contribute to eye, skin, respiratory, and urinary tract infections.[6]
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