Schematic showing that when a cell membrane is injured the arachidonic acid pathway is activated to initiate the local inflammatory response through the production of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. Their activation requires the enzymes COX and LOX. The NSAIDs can block COX action and thereby prevent the formation of the COX-derived inflammatory mediators. 5-HPETE = 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid; LTC4 = leukotriene C4; PGE2 = prostaglandin E2; PGF2 = prostaglandin F2; PGI2 = prostacyclin; TXA2 = thromboxane.
How much do you have to use at once and how often? Is it easy to apply too much? Generally, roll-on applicators are the best choice for reducing waste since it’s hard to put on too much when using them. It is also important to note that if you need deep muscle penetration roll-ons often don’t provide the same effect as hand rubbing gel or cream into the affected area. So be sure to keep that factor in mind as you review these products.
7. White Willow Bark (Salix alba) –  The active ingredient in white willow is salicin, which the body converts into salicylic acid. This tree’s covering lowers the body’s levels of prostaglandins, hormone-like compounds that can cause aches, pain, and inflammation. What’s more, white willow bark doesn’t upset the stomach or cause internal bleeding like many over-the-counter aspirins. Turn to this herb for relief from menstrual cramps, muscle pains, arthritis, or after knee or hip surgery as it promotes blood flow and reduces swelling.
Just as the name suggests, these are very effective forms of treatment that you can use to not only get rid of pain experienced on different parts of your body, but the creams would also help you reduce any forms of inflammation that may be experienced. As long as you follow all the instructions provided on how to use the drugs, you would be able to get the best out of these forms of medication.
Topical gels have been shown to reduce the need for oral analgesics which is a good thing for reducing side effects.One trial found that topical capsaicin reduce pain more than placebo in people with AS, although it can cause burning sensations. Another trial used a gel form of a drug called tenoxicam (an NSAID) that suggested it might be helpful. Do ask your specialist if you can try something like voltarol – or a stronger version on prescription – and follow their individual advice. They may prefer you to have some oral anti-inflammatory on board to reduce inflammation throughout the body, however.
Nearly everyone suffers from some type of back pain at some point in their lives. But no matter when it appears or what may have caused it, back pain can be a real, well … pain to deal with. The good news? There are several simple things you can do to ease pain and keep your back in good condition. The following tips can help you get on the way toward feeling better.
Back pain is a health concern for most people in the United States at some point in their lives and one of the most common reasons people miss work or visit the doctor. More than 80 percent of Americans will experience low back pain, and this health problem costs the United States over $100 billion each year, most of which is a result of lost wages. 
Boswellia serrata is a traditional Indian Ayurvedic remedy for inflammatory conditions. It is extracted from the gum of the Indian boswellia tree and has been in use for centuries to treat joint pain and inflammation. It provides anti-inflammatory activity in areas where there is chronic inflammation by turning off the pro-inflammatory cytokines that begin the inflammatory process. Moreover, research shows that the acids contained within boswellia extract stop the formation of immune cells known as leukotrienes, which are responsible for inflammation. This then allows blood to flow unobstructed to the joints for healing and improved mobility.
Stay strong. Once your low back pain has receded, you can help avert future episodes of back pain by working the muscles that support your lower back, including the back extensor muscles. "They help you maintain the proper posture and alignment of your spine," Reicherter says. Having strong hip, pelvic, and abdominal muscles also gives you more back support. Avoid abdominal crunches, because they can actually put more strain on your back.
Although it’s been available in Europe for many years, it was only approved for use in the United States in 2007. Also, other topical treatments (salicylates and capsaicin) have shown little potential in the past. And Arnica montana creams (Traumeel, for example) are extremely popular, but it’s unlikely that even full-strength arnica is medically potent, let alone when it is diluted down to traces.3
A study involving 172 people with osteoarthritis of the knee compared the use of a arnica gel with a prescribed, nonsteroidal anti-iflammatory gel (the NSAID piroxicam) with 1g of gel applied three times a day for 4 weeks. The results showed a pain reduction of 16.5 in the arnica gel group versus only 8.1 in the NSAID gel group and the researchers concluded that the Arnica gel was at least as effective and as well tolerated as the NSAID gel. A similar trial involving over 200 people with osteoarthritis of the hands showed that arnica gel was just as effective as an NSAID (ibuprofen) gel in reducing pain and improving hand function.
The active ingredients in fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), enhance the conversion of COX to prostaglandin E3. A natural anti-inflammatory agent, prostaglandin E3 competitively inhibits the effects of the arachidonic acid conversion to prostaglandin E2, a highly inflammatory substance. Prostaglandin E3 also inhibits the synthesis of TNF-α and IL-1b, both of which are inflammatory cytokines. The EPA and DHA can inhibit the 5-LOX pathway, which converts arachidonic acid to inflammatory leukotrienes, by competitive inhibition as well. When EPA and DHA are incorporated into articular cartridge chondrocyte cell membranes, there is a dose-dependent decrease in the expression and activity of the proteoglycan-degrading aggrecanase enzymes.[12,23–25,27,50,85]
Meditate twice daily. Meditation comes in many varieties, some complex, others simple. One common approach is just to find a sound that is pleasing to you but has no particular meaning (like "som"), close your eyes, sit still and comfortably, and repeat the sound in your mind. When your thoughts wander, notice that they have wandered and return to your sound. If you feel your pain, notice the pain and return to your sound.
Diclofenac is an extremely popular drug — again, we’re talking oral here — and it is associated with serious cardiovascular risks: “There is increasing regulatory concern about diclofenac. … Diclofenac has no advantage in terms of gastrointestinal safety and it has a clear cardiovascular disadvantage.”14 This has been in the news quite a bit, and NPR had a hit in 2013 with this headline: “World's Most Popular Painkiller Raises Heart Attack Risk.”
Research suggests that topical medications may be just as effective as oral ones. Many of them worked significantly better than placebo. These medications can come in the form of gels, creams, patches, and more. One study also saw decrease in pain when people applied lavender essential oil or ointments prepared with cayenne peppers with acupressure.

The exhibited pain cream of Penetrex brand comprises an evolved pain-relieving mechanism, which in effect is crafted by availing the highly effective ingredients of Cetyl Myristoleate or CMO and Methylsulfonylmethane or MSM. Whereas the first one enacts over the ground cause of all muscular and joint aches that is inflammation, the second one works over the physiological cells and fortifies them to fight pains. Other serviceable ingredients in the formulary include Arnica, Vitamin B6 and Choline. The pain cream is non-sticky and stain-free and vowed to gratis steroids and drugs. It is especially famous for dodging aches over knee, arm, calf, hip and wrist. The parent brand vends it in a 2oz volume pot.
For arthritic pain in the hands and knees, capsaicin is your best bet if you want to go the natural route. Otherwise topical NSAIDs work well, too. If you are taking any medications for your arthritis, be sure to talk to your healthcare provider before using any creams and gels and make sure there are no ingredients in them that could interact with your medication.

Learning to keep your cool is as good for your back as it is for your mental health. When you're anxious, your body sets off the "fight or flight" response, which involves tensing your muscles so you're ready to spring into action. One European study revealed that people prone to negative thoughts and anxiety are more likely to suffer from back pain. Get calm now with these stress-busting solutions.


This information is not designed to replace a physician's independent judgment about the appropriateness or risks of a procedure for a given patient. Always consult your doctor about your medical conditions or back problem. SpineUniverse does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Use of the SpineUniverse.com site is conditional upon your acceptance of our User Agreement
According to Susi Hately, owner of Functional Synergy, Inc., in Alberta, Canada, and author of several international best-selling yoga books, yoga can be very therapeutic for people with back pain as well. A review of scientific studies published in 2013 in the Clinical Journal of Pain found strong evidence that yoga can help reduce chronic low back pain. Yoga may help improve back pain by loosening tight muscles, building strength and range of motion, and improving breathing, explains Hately. Yoga also focuses on relaxation, which may help to relax your muscles as well as reduce pain perception.
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"There are three that I swear by. I use Icy Hot Roll-On ($5; walmart.com) on my feet at the end of the day after I do my exercises to stretch my feet. It's also great for traveling because it doesn't get messy! I like Salonpas Spray ($8; walmart.com) because it can get hard-to-reach places on my back or shoulder blades. And since Tiger Balm ($5; walmart.com) is strong, I use that when my legs are sore and I sleep with it on. I wake up the next morning and feel great." —Nicole Winhoffer, founder NW Method
Are you in pain? You don’t have to reach for over-the -counter pain killers, or even the heavy pharmaceutical hitters prescribed by your doctor; there are literally hundreds of natural pain killers waiting for you in the abundance of nature. You can count on plants and herbs to alleviate everything from arthritis pain, to headaches, to burns – read on to find out more.
Arnica montana is a flowering mountain herb with a long history of traditional use in pain relief. Arnica extracts contain numerous pain reliefing ingredients, including sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids which reduce inflammation, swelling and pain, plus thymol which fights infection. Arnica cream, gel and ointment is used to ease muscle pain and spasm, insect bites, superficial burns – including sunburn – sprains and painful joints caused by arthritis or other rheumatic disorders. Herbal arnica products contain measurable levels of active ingredients, while homeopathic arnica products contain lower levels that work in a different way. Research shows that arnica products are as effective at relieving painful joints as ibuprofen gel when applied two to four times a day.

When you suffer from recurring back pain, the last thing you want to do is become dependent on medication. Dr. Pat’s Ultra Freeze gel is a simple, non-intrusive solution to muscle aches and soreness that gets to work straight away, helping you get on with your daily life without pain. Designed to combat discomfort associated with arthritis and sciatica as well as muscle pain, the cooling gel comes in a larger than average container, meaning you can depend on it being there when you need it.

Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis are Peruvian herbs derived from woody vines with small claw-like thorns (hence the vernacular name, cat’s claw) at the base of the leaf, which allow the plant to climb to heights of up to 100 ft. Traditionally, the bark of cat’s claw is used to treat arthritis, bursitis, and intestinal disorders. The active ingredients appear to be polyphenols (flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and tannins), alkaloids, and sterols. Various studies indicate that this Peruvian herb induces a generalized reduction in proinflammatory mediators.
Alternate warm and cold. Try alternating soaks in warm and cold water, especially if you have swelling. Fill one sink with cold water (65 degrees Fahrenheit) and another with warm water (110 degrees Fahrenheit). Leave your hands or feet in the warm water for five to 10 minutes, and then switch to cold for one minute. Return to the warm for three to four minutes, and then switch to cold for another minute. Repeat this four or five times.
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The NSAIDs are also known to have adverse effects on kidney function.[31] Dehydration or preexisting chronic renal failure or disease, resulting in stimulation of the renin–angiotensin system, may predispose certain populations to acute renal failure through inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which can occur when taking NSAIDs.[31] The National Kidney Foundation asserts that approximately 10% of kidney failures per year are directly correlated to substantial overuse of NSAIDs.
How it works: When back muscles hurt, the pain is usually caused by inflamed tissue. Cold reduces the swelling and discomfort, says Jason Highsmith, a neurosurgeon in Charleston, South Carolina. As soon as you feel pain, apply cold several times a day, 10 minutes at a time, for about three days. A bag of frozen peas works, or try a cold pack, like an Ace Reusable Cold Compress ($10 at drugstores).
Are you in pain? You don’t have to reach for over-the -counter pain killers, or even the heavy pharmaceutical hitters prescribed by your doctor; there are literally hundreds of natural pain killers waiting for you in the abundance of nature. You can count on plants and herbs to alleviate everything from arthritis pain, to headaches, to burns – read on to find out more.

Learning to keep your cool is as good for your back as it is for your mental health. When you're anxious, your body sets off the "fight or flight" response, which involves tensing your muscles so you're ready to spring into action. One European study revealed that people prone to negative thoughts and anxiety are more likely to suffer from back pain. Get calm now with these stress-busting solutions.


The arnica Montana plant—also known as the mountain daisy—has been used for centuries to provide natural pain relief. For people who prefer a homeopathic approach to pain, the Boiron Arnica Cream is a great addition to your medicine cabinet. The non-sticky cream can help relieve muscle pain, stiffness, swelling, and bruise discoloration. It’s also a good option for sensitive skin thanks to the natural ingredients. It can even be applied to the face and is safe to use on children.
If you’re sensitive to aspirin, or if you’re taking any over-the-counter (OTC) anti-inflammatory drugs (like aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen), you should avoid willow bark. You should also avoid taking it if you’re taking warfarin (Coumadin) or other anticoagulant treatments, as salicin could increase the risk of bleeding. Talk to your doctor before taking willow bark if you’re taking other anti-inflammatory or pain medications.
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