Authors of a 2016 review published in Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism conclude, “Topical NSAIDs have a moderate effect on pain relief, with efficacy similar to that of oral NSAIDs, with the advantage of a better risk:benefit ratio.” However, A 2016 Cochrane review looked at 39 studies with 10,631 participants and found that topical diclofenac, “can provide good levels of pain relief in osteoarthritis, but only for about 10% more people than get this result with topical placebo.”
While there are mixed answers on how many servings of leafy greens one should eat each day for preventive effects, an overall eight to ten servings of vegetables and fruits daily is recommended for the best results. Of those, perhaps two to three servings of vegetables should be leafy greens. Leafy greens are rich in quercetin, a type of flavonoid that is responsible for broad anti-inflammatory benefits, as well as vitamin C, vitamin K, and essential minerals like magnesium. (15)
Synovial fluid is a thick, slippery substance with a consistency similar to egg white. It acts like an oil and fills small cavities within the joint cartilage, providing oxygen and nutrients when the joint is resting. Synovial fluid also pushes the bones apart so they don’t rub together to cause pain. Glucosamine also provides building blocks for making new cartilage, and repairing damaged areas. Glucosamine is also known to damp down inflammation and act as a biological signal to stimulate tissue repair.
I’m not saying NSAIDs are useless. They have their place. If you’re recovering from surgery or a major injury, traditional over-the-counter pain relievers are good for controlling inflammation, swelling, and pain, but NSAIDs are far too powerful for over-the-counter, everyday use. Unlike a lot of natural pain relievers, NSAIDs also don’t address the cause of inflammation or pain; they just mask the symptoms.