NSAIDs have anti-inflammatory (reduce inflammation), analgesic (relieve pain) and antipyretic (lower temperature) effects. Although different NSAIDs have different structures, they all work by blocking cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Both types produce prostaglandins; however, the main function of COX-1 enzymes is to produce baseline levels of prostaglandins that activate platelets and protect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas COX-2 enzymes are responsible for releasing prostaglandins after infection or injury. Prostaglandins have a number of different effects, one of which is to regulate inflammation. Most NSAIDs inhibit both enzymes, although a few are available that mainly inhibit COX-2. The pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs are mainly due to inhibition of COX-2, and their unwanted side effects are largely due to inhibition of COX-1.

Warnings: For external use only. Avoid contact with eyes, mucous membranes, and broken or irritated skin. In case of accidental contact, flush with water. Keep out of the reach of children. If irritation occurs, discontinue use immediately. Do not tightly wrap or bandage or use with other topical preparations or heating pads. Consult a doctor if you are pregnant/nursing, under 12 years old, have sensitive skin, your condition persists or worsens, or excessive burning or irritation persists.

"My go-to muscle soothing product is Topricin Pain Relief Cream ($17; topicrin.com) as it is a combination of 11 homeopathic ingredients proven to be safe for your skin. I typically apply it to my lower back (where I've had trauma) before I go running and again before bed. I'm a believer!" —Kira Stokes, creator of The Stoked Method (Try her 30-day plank challenge to score tighter abs, faster.)


One reviewer describes the Penetrex cream as “magic in a jar,” saying that it helps her cope with back discomfort that doesn’t respond to other pain-treatment methods, whether massage or physical therapy. People say that the Penetrex cream has helped them while recovering from injury or surgery, but many also use it on a daily basis to alleviate arthritis pain as well as the normal but nagging aches that can spring up later in life.
Music therapy is a low-cost natural therapy that may reduce some of the stress of chronic pain in conjunction with other treatments. Studies find that it may reduce the disability, anxiety, and depression associated with chronic pain. It is thought to help because it can shift attention away from the unpleasant sensations of pain, and it may cause the release of endorphins or changes in catecholamine levels.
I purchased this because it was less expensive than Penetrex and I'd thought I'd try it out.. Unfortunately, compared to Penetrex, at least for me, I do not feel that it is worth the savings. I'm using it for Plantar Fasciitis and Osteoarthritis in my knees. Although it does provide some pain relief, the duration is limited to a couple hours, whereas Penetrex lasts for up to half a day. However, SynthaFlex does offer a little more relief, albeit very temporarily, for my Osteoarthritis than Penetrex does. It is not nearly as effective for my Plantar Fasciitis pain. Ultimately, if I have to apply it many times throughout the day, it is not cost effective in comparison.
Arnica, also commonly known as mountain tobacco, is a plant that is defined as an ideal medicinal plant for “individuals who have suffered a significant fall or have injured themselves at work” in botanical texts dating as far back as the 17th century. It has many qualities from a topical perspective. First and foremost, it provides rapid relief from discomfort in the joints (including knees, elbows, shoulders and hands) and in individuals who suffer from arthrosis and live with chronic pain, and also for muscle cramps, blows, bumps, rheumatism, sprains, frostbite, etc. So what is the reason for this? As it happens, it causes an immediate calm in bruises from bumps and contusions thanks to localised reactivation of blood vessel circulation which reduces inflammation.
Research has shown that the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are some of the most effective natural anti-inflammatory agents available.[12,23–25,27,50,85] With the discovery that vascular inflammation is the underlying cause of coronary artery disease, fish and fish oil supplements are now recommended by the American Heart Association for the prevention of this disease.[12,23–25,27,50,85] Countries that have the highest fish consumption also have a lower incidence of neurodegenerative disease and depression.[12,23–25,27,50,85] The biological basis for the effectiveness of fish oil in treating arthritis has been well documented with many positive clinical studies, when compared to traditional pharmaceutical anti-inflammatory agents.[12,23–25,27,50,85]
According to recommendations of the Arthritis Foundation, when treating conditions related to arthritis it is best to use “fish oil capsules with at least 30 percent EPA/ DHA, the active ingredients. For lupus and psoriasis, 2 grams EPA/DHA three times a day. For Raynaud’s phenomenon, 1 grams four times a day. For rheumatoid arthritis, up to 2.6 grams fish oil (1.6 grams EPA) twice a day.”
Jackson, M., & Tummon Simmons, L. (2018, April 1). Challenging case in clinical practice: Improvement in chronic osteoarthritis pain with use of arnica oil massage, therapeutic ultrasound, and acupuncture — A case report [Abstract]. Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 24(2), 60–62. Retrieved from https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/act.2018.29152.mja?journalCode=act
Music therapy is a low-cost natural therapy that may reduce some of the stress of chronic pain in conjunction with other treatments. Studies find that it may reduce the disability, anxiety, and depression associated with chronic pain. It is thought to help because it can shift attention away from the unpleasant sensations of pain, and it may cause the release of endorphins or changes in catecholamine levels.
Diclofenac is an extremely popular drug — again, we’re talking oral here — and it is associated with serious cardiovascular risks: “There is increasing regulatory concern about diclofenac. … Diclofenac has no advantage in terms of gastrointestinal safety and it has a clear cardiovascular disadvantage.”14 This has been in the news quite a bit, and NPR had a hit in 2013 with this headline: “World's Most Popular Painkiller Raises Heart Attack Risk.”
For natural headache relief, two essential oils team up for natural pain relief. Peppermint oil improves circulation and lavender reduces muscle tension — two ways to quickly stop a headache in its tracks. Try placing a few drops of peppermint or lavender oil into your hands and then rubbing the blend on your forehead, temples and back of neck. You can also dilute a few drops down by mixing the essential oils with almond, grapeseed or coconut oil.
Turmeric root contains just 2% to 5% curcumin, so when reaching for a supplement, be sure you’re buying curcumin, not powered turmeric root. Curcumin is not easily absorbed by the digestive tract, so choose high-potency curcuminoids and combine with oil, since curcumin is fat-soluble. Black pepper extract (piperine), though not Bulletproof, has also been shown to increase curcumin’s bioavailability by 2000%.[13] However, some newer, high-tech curcuminoid formulas have been shown to offer the same potency levels without the use of piperine.[14]
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